How can we protect secondary alcohol?

Benzyl ether protecting groups can be used along with silyl ether protecting groups to protect poly alcohols during synthesis. Note that whereas one can selectively protect a primary alcohol as a silylether in the presence of a secondary alcohol, such selectivity is not possible with benzyl ethers.

How can we protect alcohol groups?

Alcohol protecting groups

  1. Acetyl (Ac) – Removed by acid or base (see Acetoxy group).
  2. Benzoyl (Bz) – Removed by acid or base, more stable than Ac group.
  3. Benzyl (Bn) – Removed by hydrogenolysis. …
  4. β-Methoxyethoxymethyl ether (MEM) – Removed by acid.

How can we protect tertiary alcohols?

Benzhydryl [diphenylmethyl] ethers of sugar lactones are formed in high yield under neutral conditions when the corresponding alcohol is heated with diphenyldiazomethane in an inert solvent such as acetonitrile or toluene; this allows the easy protection of base sensitive and highly hindered tertiary alcohols in the …

How do you get rid of an alcohol protection group?

The silyl ether protecting group can be removed by reaction with an aqueous acid or the fluoride ion. By utilizing a protecting group a Grignad reagent can be formed and reacted on a halo alcohol.

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What do protecting groups do?

Protecting groups are used in synthesis to temporarily mask the characteristic chemistry of a functional group because it interferes with another reaction. A good protecting group should be easy to put on, easy to remove and in high yielding reactions, and inert to the conditions of the reaction required.

How can we protect ketone groups?

Cyclic acetals and ketals are the most useful carbonyl (aldehyde or ketone) protecting groups. Common diols used to form ketals are show below in order of their relative rate of formation. 1,3-dioxanes cleave faster than 1,3-dioxolanes.

How can we protect diols?

A friendly method for the protection of diols and carbonyls catalysed by hexahydrated iron (III) chloride has been developed. This method, which consists of the transformation of diols and carbonyls to cyclic acetals, functions in mild conditions and it is efficient for a wide range of diols.

How can we protect primary alcohol?

  1. When Alcohols Get In the Way. …
  2. Protecting Groups Are Like Painter’s Tape. …
  3. A Chemical Equivalent Of Painter’s Tape. …
  4. One Potential Solution: Ethers. …
  5. A Better Way To Do It: Silyl Ethers. …
  6. A Successful Application of A Silyl Ether Protective Group Strategy. …
  7. Summary: Protecting Groups For Alcohols.


Can PCC oxidize a secondary alcohol?

PCC oxidizes alcohols one rung up the oxidation ladder, from primary alcohols to aldehydes and from secondary alcohols to ketones. In contrast to chromic acid, PCC will not oxidize aldehydes to carboxylic acids.

How can we protect amines?

The most popular choice of protecting group for amine nitrogen is the carbamate functional group.

The nitrogen of a carbamate is relatively non-nucleophilic, and furthermore, carbamates are:

  1. easily installed on nitrogen.
  2. inert to a wide variety of reaction conditions.
  3. easily removed without affecting existing amide groups.
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How do I remove a protecting group?

The silyl ether protecting group can be removed by reaction with an aqueous acid or the fluoride ion. By utilizing a protecting group a Grignad reagent can be formed and reacted on a halo alcohol.

How do I remove silyl protecting group?

Removal of silyl ether protecting groups

Reaction with acids or fluorides such as tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride removes the silyl group when protection is no longer needed.

Do Grignards react with alcohols?

Grignard reagents react rapidly with acidic hydrogen atoms in molecules such as alcohols and water.

How can we protect the alkene groups?

The presence of a bromide substituent, instead of a hydrogen or methyl group, on a carbon–carbon double bond, protects the alkene from addition reactions when exposed to trifluoroacetic acid.

Why are Ketals good protecting groups?

It turns out that different varieties of ethers are great protecting groups because they’re unreactive towards strong bases and nucleophiles. Specifically in the case of ketones and aldehydes, a functional group called an acetal (sometimes called “ketal”) is great for the job.

How do you remove acetal protecting groups?

Acetals are commonly used to protect the carbonyl groups of aldehydes and ketones from basic, nucleophilic reagents. Once the protection is no longer needed, the acetal protect- ing group is easily removed, and the carbonyl group re-exposed, by treatment with dilute aqueous acid.

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